aValues are meanSD, *Significant difference p<0.05
Comparisons of pain levels before and after the exercise program are presented in Table 4. Pain levels in the neck, shoulders, middle back, lower back, and pelvis ranged from 0 to 10 on the pain continuum. Additionally, pain levels in the shoulders (p = 0.000), middle back (p = 3.
049), and lower back (p = 0.002) were significantly different between before and after the exercise program (p < 0.05).
Comparison of pain levels before and after the exercise program
M SDM SD
Neck pain3.1 4.
Shoulder pain4.1 two or three.4**3.2 2.
Middle back pain2.9 .3*2.3 2.4*
Low back pain3.9 two.
Pelvic pain2.2 a pair of.31.9 2.
aValues are meanSD, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01
The present study investigated the effect of an exercise program for posture correction on musculoskeletal pain in 88 students from S university stuck K town.
The results showed that pain levels were higher in female participants when compared to male professionals. This result is analogous to that reported in the past studies, which showed higher pain levels in the neck and shoulders in female workers in offices than in male office workers12). These higher pain levels in female individuals than in male individuals may have several causative factors.
First, physical phenomena, including menstruation, may bring about higher pain levels a lower back female women and men. Second, physically, female individuals may have weaker bodies compared to those of male individuals. Third, the sensitivity to pain may be greater in female individuals than in male all those. Additionally, the muscle strength is less in female individuals compared with male individuals; therefore, female individuals possess a higher likelihood of posture asymmetry. To reduce such risk, the increase of muscle strength and adaptability through regular overload exercise is necessary13).
In the latest study, the exercise program reduced pain levels previously participants, so, as result is the similar to that reported in a previous study, which revealed that an exercise program including yoga and stretching reduced pain levels in the lower way back in high school students14).
Additionally, in another study, pain levels in the neck and shoulders in participants significantly reduced after 4 weeks of performing stretching exercises compared individuals before the exercise program7). In a study by Jung and Chae, which was limited for the cervical region, the pain level regarding pain scale significantly decreased by thirty-eight.8% after 8 weeks of stretching compared to this before stretching15). Another study investigated incredibly of isometric exercise on back pain, and reported a significant decrease with the spine pain after the exercise program (improvement in walking ability, ability to sit on a hard chair, and reduction in handicap), and the study reported that performance of gymnastics and stretching exercise in a standing position corrected posture, decreased the pain level, and resulted from a tendency strengthen quality of life16). The outcome of the above-mentioned research shows that steady exercise corrects posture, which improves the balance of the body, and relaxes the main body, which relieves musculoskeletal pain. Therefore, the development and introduction of suitable exercise programs will bring about the both mental and physical health of society.
This study has some limitations. Research included only students, even more walks . may be challenging to generalize the leads to other individuals owing to the age within the participants, their area of residence, and other such causes. Additionally, the participants may haven't maintained an accurate posture the particular exercise procedure. Further studies having a large involving participants of ages from diverse backgrounds and regions are required. Additionally, conducting exercise programs in groups on the regular basis may help individuals regular exercise and maintain correct healthy posture.
Although these studies had some limitations, the outcomes obtained from investigating the effect of a physical exercise program for posture correction on musculoskeletal pain can be used as the basis for the improvement of learning efficiency and health in students and road workers..